Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a systemic hereditary disorder characterized by renal and extrarenal involvement with cystic and noncystic manifestations . Hypertension is an early and frequent finding of PKD, occurring in approximately 60% of the patients before the renal function has become impaired . Hypertension has an important impact on the morbidity and mortality of these patients. PKD patients with hypertension have a more rapid loss of renal function . Moreover, hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular death, the most frequent cause of mortality in PKD patients .
Polycystic kidney disease is the most common inherited kidney disease, characterized by gradual and progressive cyst growth and renal enlargement, resulting in a decline in kidney function and the development of renal failure. Hypertension is common and occurs early, prior to the loss of renal function, with 29 years being the mean age of diagnosis. The pathophysiology of hypertension is multifactorial and is characterized by hyperactivity of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, activation of the sympathetic nervous system and endothelial dysfunction. Early antihypertensive therapy appears to postpone the development of renal failure and cardiovascular events in this disorder. This chapter reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of hypertension in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
Polycystic kidney disease isn’t limited to your kidneys, although the kidneys usually are the most severely affected organs. The disease can cause cysts to develop in your liver and elsewhere in your body.
A common complication of polycystic kidney disease is high blood pressure. Kidney failure is another common problem for people with polycystic kidney disease.
Polycystic kidney disease varies greatly in its severity, and some complications are preventable. Lifestyle changes and medical treatments may help reduce damage to your kidneys from complications, such as high blood pressure.